Each celestial body has a base range. This is determined by both the level of the body and it's biome type.
A planet's range may be increased by upgrading or by using an artifact.
The 25%, 50%, & 100% circles around a planet indicate how much of the planet's energy must be used to send a move that far. Any energy sent over that amount is "carried" by the move, ie; a planet at 100% energy sending a move to a planet on the 50% ring, and sending 75% of the total energy of the planet - the move would carry 25% of the total energy of the sending planet (if the sending planet has 100 energy, 25 would be carried by the move to the planet on the 50% ring).
The maximum range a single celestial body could have would be a corrupted biome planet with the following bonuses: x2 range comet; four upgrades into range; a photoid cannon - giving a total range of 171,562.5.